A patchwork of environmental regulations in California and elsewhere in the United States will impact the types of trucks and powertrains that will be available to Canadian fleets in the near future. And complying with some of these California-based regulations would place an administrative burden on the Canadian fleet operating there.
panelists discussing Impact of the future regulatory environment on equipment purchasing decisionsat this year’s American Truck Association management conference and exhibition, could not say with certainty how all the regulatory requirements under development would work for the fleet. Matthew Spears said there are two key rulemakings for the fleet to focus on when it comes to Cummins regulatory issues.
The California Air Resources Board’s (CARB) omnibus rulemaking “has taken nearly every element of the rule to make it tougher and tougher,” Spears warned. Tighter regulations impact NOx, particulate matter (PM), engine life and warranty requirements, making them all tougher.
California’s regulations will be finalized in late 2021, and several other states, notably Oregon, have indicated they will follow suit, in line with California’s aggressive 2024 model year implementation schedule. “This is definitely a California regulation that other states are considering adopting,” said Spears.
Emission reductions are substantial, requiring 75% reduction in NOx and 50% reduction in PM emissions. The timeline for the 2024 model year calls for an EPA advance waiver waiver, which has not yet been granted and could delay implementation. Being short, court challenges can also cause delays.
Two different emission standards
The second rule that affects equipment is the EPA. clean truck plan, is scheduled to be implemented in 2027 model devices. Rulemaking is expected to be completed by the end of this year and could call for 75% NOx reductions, PM and hydrocarbon reductions, and the introduction of stricter service life requirements and warranties.
We may end up with two different emissions standards in the US. “It can get very complicated,” Spears warned.
By 2027, fleets can expect to see new hardware and aftertreatment systems for diesel engines. Cylinder deactivation and a two-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system are some options being considered. The good news for fleets is improved fuel efficiency and extended warranty coverage. This is because regulators want to see engines that last longer, with manufacturers taking responsibility for the continued functioning of their emission reduction systems.
However, increasing the SCR level consumes more Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF). Separately, Spears said end-users will be able to operate the new engine in the same way as the existing engine.
“As engine manufacturers, we are ultimately responsible for certification and compliance,” he said.
Truck manufacturers will also have a role to play in reducing emissions. Johan Agebrand, his marketing director for products at Volvo Trucks North America, said GHG Phase 2 and 3 standards require a combination of chassis fairings, ground effect, low rolling resistance tires, automatic transmissions and fast rear axle ratios. It is said that it will be
Fleets sending trucks to California must comply with that state’s emission requirements, regardless of where they live. Ron Hall, senior vice president of equipment and fuels for CR England, said he must report to CARB if he travels to California within 30 days.
There are currently 1.5 people in the fleet, who spend all their time on California compliance.
“We needed to increase our headcount,” says Hall. “It’s not cheap people. They’re analysts, not clerks.”
Hall said the method of law enforcement (audits rather than roadside enforcement) also puts more pressure on larger vehicles.
“In our opinion, CARB’s compliance strategy tends to avoid on-street inspections and prioritizes post-activity audits. In our opinion, this creates an unfair playing field. Larger fleets are much easier to audit than smaller fleets,” Hall said. “I may be exaggerating [small fleets] It can operate with waivers, but is not held to the same standards in terms of reporting. “
Hall also said the fleet would not be able to easily analyze California activities as a separate entity, according to its parent company’s interpretation of the rules that cover “common ownership” or “investment involvement.” .
Integrating electric trucks in time to meet pressing environmental requirements in California is also challenging. Hall said the fleet has limited build he needs to plan ahead for slots and build charging infrastructure.
That opinion was shared by Dan Porterfield, Senior Vice President of Maintenance and Equipment Management at Covenant.
“You have to plan ahead,” he said. “This is looming over us quickly. On the equipment side, the question now is how are you going to be compliant?”
Covenant found that electric trucks are 2.5 to 3 times more expensive than diesel. Mr Hall said CR England will likely own the electric truck from cradle to grave as the salvage value is uncertain.
Some fleet facilities do not have sufficient power available to support the required charging infrastructure.
Hall said CR England operates a diesel-powered day cab in California two shifts a day. “It remains to be seen whether he will be able to run two shifts with zero-emission vehicles, given the charging times and the ability to fund or adapt the number of charging stations required to run them.” he said.
On the bright side, Porterfield added of the electric truck: It’s a great environment for them. Torque is no longer an issue. “
Customers also support the move to zero-emission vehicles. “They like the idea,” he said. “Some people are willing to invest their money.”
As new environmental regulations approach, Agebrand emphasized that fleets need to work more closely with dealers and OEMs to understand their implications.